REFERENCES CITED:

 

Abbaszadegan, M., Huber, M. S., Gerba, C. P. and Pepper, I. L. (1997) Detection of viable Giardia cysts by amplification of heat shock-induced mRNA. Applied and Environmental Microbiologyl 63, 324-8.

 

Abu Kwaik, Y., Gao, L. Y., Harb, O. S. and Stone, B. J. (1997) Transcriptional regulation of the macrophage-induced gene (gspA) of Legionella pneumophila and phenoptypic characterization of a null mutant. Molecular Microbiology 24, 629-642.

 

Anderson, O. R. (1998) Densities and diversity of gynmamoebae in relation to some inshore aquatic habitats at Bermuda. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 45, 151-155.

 

Avaniss-Aghajani, E., Jones, K., Holtzman, A., Aronson, T., Glover, N., Boian, M., Froman, S. and Brunk, C. F. (1996) Molecular technique for rapid identification of mycobacteria. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 34, 98-102.

 

Box, E. D. (1981) Observations of Giardia on budgerigars. Journal of Protozoology 28, 491-494.

Brieland, J., McClain, M., Heath, L., Chrisp, C., Huffnagle, G., LeGendre, M., Hurley, M., Fantone, J. and Engleberg, C. (1996) Coinnoculation with Hartmannella vermiformis enhances replicative Legionella pneumophila lung infection in a murine model of Legionnaires disease. Infection and Immunity 64, 2449-2456.

 

Brieland, J. K., Fantone, J. C., Remick, D. G., LeGendre, M., McClain, M. and Engleberg, N. C. (1997) The role of Legionella pneumophila-infected Hartmannella vermiformis as an infectious particle in a murine model in Legionnaires' disease. Infection and Immunity 65, 5330-5333.

 

Brown, T. J., Donaghy, M. J., Keys, E. A., Ionas, G., Learmonth, J. J., McLenachan, P. A. and Clarke, J. K. (1999) The viability of Giardia intestinalis and Giardia muris cysts in seawater. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 9, 157-161.

 

Calvo-Bado, L. A., Morgan, J. A., Sergeant, M., Petitt, T. R. and Whipps, J. M. (2003) Molecular characterization of Legionella populations present within slow sand filters used for fungal plant pathogen suppression in horticultural crops. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69, 533-541.

 

C. D. C.  (1983) Gastrointestinal illness among Scuba divers - New York City. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 32, 576-577.

 

Cirillo, J. D., Falkow, S. and Tompkins, L. S. (1994) Growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii enhances invasion. Infection and Immunity 62, 3254-3261.

 

Cirillo, J. D., Falkow, S., Tompkins, L. S. and Bermudez, L. E. (1997) Interaction of Mycobacterium avium with environmental amoebae enhances virulence. Infection and Immunity 65, 3759-3767.

 

Colwell, R. R., Orlob, G. T. and Schubel, J. R. (1996) Mamala Bay Study. Mamala Bay Study Commission, Honolulu (HI).

 

Daggett, P.-M., Sawyer, T. K. and Nerad, T. A. (1982) Distribution and possible interrelationship of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Acanthamoeba from aquatic environments. Microbial Ecology 8, 371-386.

 

Deng, M.-Q., Peterson, R. P. and Cliver, D. O. (2000) First findings of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Parasitology 86, 490-494.

 

Dupont, H. L., Chappell, C. L., Sterling, C. R., Okhuysen, P. C., Rose, J. B. and Jakubowski, W. (1995) The infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum in healthy volunteers. New England Journal of Medicine 332, 855-859.

 

Edwards, K. J., Gihring, T. M. and Banfield, J. F. (1999) Seasonal variations in microbial populations and environmental conditions in an extreme acid mine drainage environment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65, 3627-3632.

 

Erlandsen, S. L., Bemrick, W. J., Wells, C. L., Feely, L. K., Campbell, S. R., Van Keulen, H. and Jarroll, E. L. (1990) Axenic culture and characterization of Giardia ardeae from the great blue heron (Ardea herodias). Journal of Parasitology 76, 717-724.

 

Fayer, R., Graczyk, T. K., Lewis, E. J., Trout, J. M. and Farley, C. A. (1998) Survival of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in seawater and eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in the Chesapeake Bay. Applied and Environmental Microbiologyl 64, 1070-4.

 

Freire-Santos, F., Oteiza-López, A. M., Castro-Hermida, J. A., García-Martín, O. and Ares-Mazás, E. (2001) Viability and infectivity of oocysts recovered from clams, Ruditapes philippinarum, experimentally contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum. Parasitology Research 87, 428-430.

 

Freire-Santos, F., Oteiza-López, A. M., Vergara-Castiblanco, C. A. and Ares-Mazás, E. (2000) Study of the combined influence of environmental factors on viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water evaluated by fluorogenic vital dyes and excystation techniques. Veterinary Parasitology 89, 253-259.

 

Fritsche, T. R., Gautom, R. K., Seyedirashti, S., Bergeron, D. L. and Lindquist, T. D. (1993) Occurence of bacterial endosymbionts in Acanthamoeba spp. isolated from corneal and environmental specimens and contact lenses. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 31, 1122-1126.

 

Gast, R. J. (2001) Development of an Acanthamoeba-specific Reverse Dot-Blot and the Discovery of A New Ribotype. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 48, 609-615.

 

Gast, R. J. and Byers, T. J. (1995) Genus- and subgenus-specific oligonucleotide probes for Acanthamoeba. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 71, 255-260.

 

Gibson III, C. J., Haas, C. N. and Rose, J. B. (1998) Risk assessment of waterbourne protozoa: current status and future trends. Parasitology 117, S205-212.

 

Graczyk, T. K., Farley, C. A., Fayer, R., Lewis, E. J. and Trout, J. M. (1998a) Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in the tissues of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) carrying principal oyster infectious diseases. Journal of Parasitology 84, 1039-1042.

 

Graczyk, T. K., Fayer, R., Trout, J. M., Lewis, E. J., Farley, C. A., Sulaiman, I. and Lal, A. A. (1998b) Giardia sp. cysts and infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in the feces of migratory Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64, 2736-2738.

 

Gram, L., Bundvad, A., Melchiorsen, J., Johansen, C. and Fonnesbech Vogel, B. (1999) Occurrence of Shewanella algae in Danish coastal water and effects of water temperature and culture conditions on its survival. Applied and Environmental Microbiologyl 65, 3896-900.

 

Harb, O. S., Venkataraman, C., Haack, B. J., Gao, L. Y. and Kwaik, Y. A. (1998) Heterogeneity in the attachment and uptake mechanisms of the Legionnaires' disease bacterium, Legionella pneumophila, by protozoan hosts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64, 126-132.

Heller, R., Holler, C., Sussmuth, R. and Gundermann, K. O. (1998) Effect of salt concentration and temperature on survival of Legionella pneumophila. Letters in Applied Microbiology 26, 64-68.

 

Hinga, K. R. (1992) Co-occurrence of dinoflagellate blooms and high pH in marine enclosures. Marine Ecology Progress Series 86, 181-187.

 

John, D. T. (1993) Opportunistically pathogenic free-living amebae. In Parasitic Protozoa, Vol. 3, Kreir, J. P. and Baker, J. R. eds, pp. 143-246. Academic Press, San Diego.

 

Johnson, D. C., Enriquez, C. E., Pepper, I. L., Davis, T. L., Gerba, C. P. and Rose, J. B. (1997) Survival of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, poliovirus and Salmonella in marine waters. Water Science and Technology 35, 261-268.

 

Johnson, D. C., Reynolds, K. A., Gerba, C. P., Pepper, I. L. and Rose, J. B. (1995) Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in marine waters. Water Science and Technology 31, 439-442.

 

Kilvington, S. and Price, J. (1990) Survival of Legionella pneumophila within cysts of Acanthamoeba polyphaga following chlorine exposure. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 68, 519-525.

 

King, C. H., Shotts Jr, E. B., Wooley, R. E. and Porter, K. G. (1988) Survival of coliforms and bacterial pathogens within protozoa during chlorination. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 54, 3023-3033.

 

Kuhn, R. C., Rock, C. M. and Oshima, K. H. (2002) Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in wild ducks along the Rio Grande River Valley in southern New Mexico. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68, 161-165.

 

Kuske, C. R., Banton, K. L., Adorada, D. L., Stark, P. C., Hill, K. K. and Jackson, P. J. (1998) Small-scale DNA sample preparation method for field PCR detection of microbial cells and spores in soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64, 2463-2472.

 

La Scola, B. and Raoult, D. (1999) Afipia felis in hospital water supply in association with free-living amoebae. Lancet 353, 1330.

 

Lane, S. and Lloyd, D. (2002) Current trends in research into the waterborne parasite Giardia. Critical Reviews in Microbiology 28, 123-147.

 

Ledee, D. R. (1995) Interspecific Mitochondrial rRNA and tRNA Gene Variation in Acanthamoeba: New Insights into Phylogeny, Taxonomy, RNA Editing and Epidemiology. The Ohio State University.

 

Lim, E. L., Caron, D. A. and Delong, E. F. (1996) Development and field application of a quantitative method for examining natural assemblages of protists with oligonucleotide probes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62, 1416-1423.

 

Lim, E. L., Caron, D. A. and Dennett, M. R. (1999) The ecology of Paraphysomonas imperforata based on studies employing oligonucleotide probe identification in coastal water samples and enrichment culture. Limnology and Oceanography 44, 37-51.

 

Lim, E. L., Tomita, A. V., Thilly, W. G. and Polz, M. F. (2001) Combination of competitive quantitative PCR and constant-denaturant capillary electrophoresis for high-resolution detection and enumeration of microbial cells. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67, 3897-3903.

 

Lowery, C. J., Nugent, P., Moore, J. E., Millar, B. C., Xiru, X. and Dooley, J. S. (2001) PCR-IMS detection and molecular typing of Cryptosporidium parvum recovered from a recreational river source and an associated mussel (Mytilus edulis) bed in Northern Ireland. Epidemiology and Infection 127, 545-53.

 

Ludwig, W., Strunk, O., Westram, R., Richter, L., Meier, H., Yadhukumar, Buchner, A., Lai, T., Steppi, S. and others (2002) ARB: a software environment for sequence data. Nucleic Acids Research, submitted.

 

Medema, G. J. and Schijven, J. F. (2001) Modelling the sewage discharge and dispersion of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in surface water. Water Research 35, 4307-4316.

 

Miltner, E. C. and Bermudez, L. E. (2000) Mycobacterium avium grown in Acanthamoeba castellanii is protected from the effects of antimicrobials. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 44, 1990-1994.

 

Munson, D. A. (2001) Incidence of cyst forming amoebae in Bermuda inshore waters relative to distance from point source sewage effluent. Paper presented at the IXth International Meeting on the Biology and Pathogenicity of Free-Living Amoebae Proceedings, Paris, 2001.

 

Neumeister, B., Reiff, G., Faigle, M., Dietz, K. and Northoff, H. (2000) Influence of Acanthamoeba castellanii on intracellular growth of different Legionella species in human monocytes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66, 914-919.

 

N. O. A. A. (1998a) Year of the Ocean Discussion Papers, Washington, D.C..

 

N. O. A. A. (1998b) Pacific Coast Region. In NOAA's Estuarine Eutrophication Survey, Vol. 5, pp. 75, Silver Spring, Md.

 

NRC (1999) National Research Council, Committee on Ocean's Role in Human Health. National Academy Press, Washington (DC).

 

O'Malley, M. L., Lear, D. W., Adams, W. N., Gaines, J., Sawyer, T. K. and Lewis, E. J. (1982) Microbial contamination of continental shelf sediments by wastewater. J Water Poll Contr Fed 54, 1311-1317.

 

Page, F. C. (1988) A new key to freshwater and soil Gymnamoebae. Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, Cumbria.

 

Palmer, C. J., Tsai, Y. L., Paszko-Kolva, C., Mayer, C. and Sangermano, L. R. (1993) Detection of Legionella species in sewage and ocean water by polymerase chain reaction, direct fluorescent- antibody, and plate culture methods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59, 3618-3624.

 

Pernin, P. and Pélandakis, M. (2001) About some aspects of the ecology and biodiversity of the Naegleria amoebae. Paper presented at the IXth International Meeting on the Biology and Pathogenicity of Free-Living Amoebae Proceedings, Paris, 2001.

 

Posada, D. and Crandall, K. (1998) MODELTEST: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics 14, 817-818.

 

Rendtorff, R. C. (1954) The experimental transmission of human intestinal protozoan parasites. II. Giardia lamblia cysts given in capsules. American Journal of Hygiene 59, 209-220.

 

Reveiller, F. L., Cabanes, P. A. and Marciano-Cabral, F. (2002) Development of a nested PCR assay to detect the pathogenic free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri. Parasitol Res 88, 443-50.

 

Rivasi, F., Longanesi, L., Casolari, C., Croppo, G. P., Pierini, G., Zunarelli, E. and Visvesvara, G. S. (1995) Cytologic diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Acta Cytologica 39, 821-826.

Robertson, L. J., Campbell, A. T. and Smith, H. V. (1992) Survival of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts under various environmental pressures. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 58, 3494-3500.

 

Rochelle, P. A., De Leon, R., Stewart, M. H. and Wolfe, R. L. (1997) Comparison of primers and optimization of PCR conditions for detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 106-114.

 

Rose, J. B., Lisle, J. T. and M., L. (1997) Waterborne cryptosporidiosis:  Incidence, outbreaks and treatment strategies. In Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis, Fayer, R. ed, pp. 93-109. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, FL.

 

Rowbotham, T. (1980) Preliminary report on the pathogenicity of Legionella pneumophila for fresh-water and soil amoebae. Journal of Clinical Pathology 33, 1179-1183.

 

Sawyer, T. K. (1971) Isolation and identification of free-living marine amoebae from Upper Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 90, 44-51.

 

Sawyer, T. K. (1980) Marine amebae from clean and stressed bottom sediments of the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Protozoology 27, 13-32.

 

Sawyer, T. K., Lewis, E. J., Galassa, M., Lear, D. W., O'Malley, M. L., Adams, W. N. and Gaines, J. (1982) Pathogenic amoebae in ocean sediments near wastewater sludge disposal sites. Water Pollution Control Federation 54, 1318-1323.

 

Sawyer, T. K., Nerad, T. A., Lewis, E. J. and McLaughlin, S. M. (1993) Acanthamoeba stevensoni N. Sp. (Protozoa: Amoebida) from sewage-contaminated shellfish beds in Raritan Bay, New York. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 40, 742-746.

 

Sawyer, T. K., Visvesvara, G. S. and Harke, B. A. (1977) Pathogenic amoebas from brackish and ocean sediments, with a description of Acanthamoeba hatchetti, n.sp. Science 196, 1324-1325.

 

Smith, H. V. (1992) Cryptosporidium and water: A review. Institution of Water and Environmental Management 6, 443-451.

 

Stehr-Green, J. K., Bailey, T. M. and Visvesvara, G. S. (1989) The epidemiology of Acanthamoeba keratitisin the United States. American Journal of Ophthalmology 107, 331-336.

 

Strickland, J. D. and Parsons, T. R. (1972) A practical handbook of seawater analysis, Vol. 167. Bulletin of Fisheries Research Board of Canada.

 

Swofford, D. (1999) PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods). Sinauer Assoc, Sunderland MA.

 

Tan, B., Weldon-Linne, M., Rhone, D. P., Penning, C. L. and Visvesvara, G. S. (1993) Acanthamoeba Infection Presenting as Skin Lesions in Patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 117, 1043-1046.

 

Teunis, P. F. M., Medema, G. J., Kruidenier, L. and Havelaar, A. H. (1997) Assessment of the risk of infection by Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water from a surface water source. Water Research 31, 1333-1346.

 

Thom, S., Warhurst, D. and Drasar, B. S. (1992) Association of Vibrio cholerae with fresh water amoebae. Journal of Medical Microbiology 36, 303-306.

Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. and Gibson, T. J. (1994) Clustal W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucl. Acids Res. 22, 4673-4680.

 

Tomov, A. T., Tsvetkova, E. D., Tomova, I. A., Michailova, L. I. and Kassovski, V. K. (1999) Persistance and multiplication of obligate anaerobic bacteria in amoebae under aerobic conditions. Anaerobe 5, 19-23.

 

Toner, R. C. (1981) Interrelationships between biological, chemical, and physical variables in Mount Hope Bay, Massachusetts. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 12, 701-712.

 

Van Keulen, H., Macechko, P.T., Wade, S., Schaaf, S., Wallis, P. M., Erlandsen, S. L. (2002) Presence of human Giardia in domestic, farm and wild animals, and environmental samples suggests a zoonotic potential for giardiasis. Veterinary Parasitology  108 (2),  97-107. 

 

Verity, P. G. (1986) Growth rates of natural tintinnid populations in Narragansett Bay. Marine Ecology Progress Series 29, 105-115.

 

Watkins, W. D. and Cabelli, V. J. (1985) Effect of fecal pollution on Vibrio parahaemolyticus densities in an estuarine environment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 49, 1307-1313.

 

Williams, s. C., Hong, Y., Danavall, D. C. A., Howard-Jones, M. H., Gibson, D., Frischer, M. E. and Verity, P. G. (1998) Distinguishing between living and nonliving bacteria:  evaluation of the vital stain propidium iodide and its combined use with molecular probes in aquatic samples. Journal of Microbiological Methods 32, 225-236.

 

Winiecka-Krusnell, J. and Linder, E. (2001) Bacterial infections of free-living amoebae. Research Microbiology 152, 613-619.

 

Winiecka-Krusnell, J., Lundholm, M., Allestam, G. and Linder, E. (2000) Heat-resistance of free-living amoebae isolated from water network. Paper presented at the 8th EMOP, Poznan, Poland, 2000.